Glen T. Winstein





  Usually in the Old Testament, the Hebrew word "ger" in Greek is "paroikas"
or, in later texts, "proselyte."  "Proselyte" is only used in the Old Testament
to translate "ger," and seems to be usually used for verses that refer to some-
one closer to being a full convert (compare Deut.14:21, where "ger" is rendered
"paroikos" in Greek).  "Paroikas" is also the most common translation for the
Hebrew word for "by-dweller" or "alien resident."  By the time of the events of
Acts 15, the Gentile living by the seven Noahide rules was a proselyte of the
gate.  Someone simply called a "ger" or "proselyte" was considered a full con-
  "Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, 1962, Vol.3, "Proselyte," pp.921,922,
927,929, and Vol.4, "Sojourner"

  By the time of the events of Acts, Jewish culture had gone from considering a
proselyte as an alien who was an uncircumcised Jewish law follower that they
were to love to usually considering them as a full convert.  Otherwise, they
believed that a minimally acceptable, uncircumcised gentile followed seven
Noahide rules.

  In the JWs leaders' view, an alien resident (NWT)/stranger (RSV)--"ger" in
Hebrew--was "a full worshipper of Jehovah" when "ger" was translated "proselyte"
in the Greek Septuagint, as at Ex.12:48; Lev.17:8,10,12,13,15; 18:26; and oth-
ers.  It also holds that at Deut.14:21, where "ger" is translated "paroiko" in
Greek, they were instead "one who had not become a full-fledged worshipper of
  "Insight on the Scriptures," 1988, Vol.1, "ALIEN RESIDENT," pp.72,73; "COVE-
NANT," p.523; and Vol.2, "PROSELYTE," p.699

  The distinctive JWs leaders' view that "proselyte" referred to a circumcised
full convert in Mosaic law.  This makes for a discrepancy between the JWs lead-
ers' view and in the usual way some make a comparison between

  - the interpretation that Jewish law followers influenced the apostles to make
rules for uncircumcised Gentiles for socialization with Jewish law followers at
Acts 15:29

  - and Mosaic law having similar rules in the same order for those not full
converts to live in Israel at Lev.17:3-8,10,15; 18:6-20,22,23.

  The JWs leaders' view has "proselytes" in Leviticus refer to full converts.

  I also noticed that the JWs leaders' NWT at Ex.12:48 seems to make the prose-
lyte someone who had to become circumcised.  If "Insight on the Scriptures" has
it that a proselyte was a full convert, so circumcised, and Ex.12:48 has it that
they were to become circumcised...again?  Never mind.);&version=49;