< Russell's passport 1891
1994 "Jehovah’s Witnesses believe that saluting a flag, singing a national
anthem, and reciting a pledge of allegiance are religious acts. Their Bible-
trained conscience does not permit them to participate in such acts of worship.
(Matthew 4:10; Acts 5:29) No matter what country they live in, this is their
stand in imitation of Jesus Christ, who said that his followers would be 'no
part of the world, just as (he was) no part of the world.'—John 17:16."
("Awake!" Jan.8, 1994, p.2) (See 1935 and 1995 on p.1a.)
However, see the article at the next link: Watchtower presidents Rutherford,
Knorr, Franz, and Henschel are shown in their passport photos for which they
signed an oath of allegiance to the United States. In the case of Rutherford,
it was prior to the 1935 onward ban (3/28/22), but for Knorr (6/8/68), Henschel
(9/16/52), and Franz (?/8/88), it was after the ban took effect.
"Because Christians can be loyal both to God and to earthly governments they
can take oaths of allegiance to defend the Constitution, as is required of citi-
zens in some countries in order to get a passport." ("The Watchtower," Sept.15,
According to the jwfacts site, the JWs leaders ruled against such pledges and
oaths as idolatrous and worldly and out of the question--except when making an
identical oath to a country for a passport or citizenship (so the JWs could more
freely travel to sell JWs leaders' literature and for whatever reasons the JWs
leaders had to travel).
See "Lemon Pledge" at 1993 on p.1a cont. and "The Watchtower outlooks on
worldliness" and "The Watchtower outlooks on neutrality" on p.6.
Governing Body 2010
Back row left to right
M. Stephen Lett, Anthony Morris, Guy H. Pierce, Samuel F. Herd, Geoffrey Jack-
Front row left to right
Gerritt Lösch, David H. Splane, Theodore Jaracz (deceased), John E. Barr
Current (as of Feb., 2016)
The following people are members of the Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses
(year appointed in parentheses):
Samuel Herd (1999)
Geoffrey Jackson (2005)
M. Stephen Lett (1999)
Gerrit Lösch (1994)
Anthony Morris III (2005)
Mark Sanderson (2012)
David H. Splane (1999)